Recently, I was asked if it is possible to remove stub items. The reason was they were going to transition to a newer version of Exchange and they wouldn’t be using the archiving solution in the new environment. When required, vendor tooling would be used to search through the existing archives.
In such cases it makes sense to remove the stubs from the mailbox, which are shortcut messages that points to a copy of the original message in the archive solution. The new environment won’t contain the required Outlook plugins or extensions to retrieve the original message from the archive using the stub, making the stub lead to a partial or empty message.
To identify stubs, one can filter on an attribute of each item, MessageClass. This attribute defines which kind of item it is (in fact, determines what form Outlook should use in order to present or process the information). Examples of MessageClass definitions are IPM.Note (regular e-mail messages), IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.Shortcut (message archived by Enterprise Vault) or IPM.ixos-archive (message archived by Opentext/IXOS LiveLink E-Mail Archive).
To identify stubs from Outlook, add the Message Class field to your Outlook view, e.g.:
When you want to remove the stubs using Outlook, you can utilize the Advanced Find function of Outlook, but that is a very labor intensive, tedious and non-centralized per-mailbox procedure:
Using the script requires Exchange Web Services (EWS) Managed API and for OAuth authentication the Microsoft Authentication Library (MSAL) libraries. You can install these packages from NuGet, or place their DLL’s in the same folder as the script. For an example of how to install EWS.Managed.Api from NuGet, see this article; for MSAL follow the same process but with the package titled ‘Microsoft.Identity.Client’.
Also take notice that since you’ll be processing user mailboxes, you’ll need to have full mailbox access or impersonation permissions when using Basic Authentication; the latter is preferred. For details on how to configure impersonation for Exchange On-Premises or Office 365, see this blog post. Using a registered app with OAuth is always through Impersonation.
The script Remove-MessagesClassItems.ps1 uses the following syntax:
Remove-MessageClassItems.ps1 [-Identity] [-MessageClass] [-Type] [-Server ] [-Impersonation] [-DeleteMode ] [-Type] [-Before ] [-MailboxOnly] [-ArchiveOnly] [-IncludeFolders] -ExcludeFolders [-NoProgressBar] [-Force] [-WhatIf] [-Confirm] [-Secret] [-CertificateThumbprint] [-CertificateFile] [-CertificatePassword] [-TenantId] [-ClientId] [-TrustAll]
A quick walk-through on the parameters and switches:
- Identity is the name or e-mail address of the mailbox.
- MessageClass specifies the Message Class to remove, for example IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.Shortcut (EnterpriseVault). You can use wildcards around or at the end to include folders containing or starting with this string, e.g. ‘IPM.ixos*’ or ‘*EnterpriseVault*’. Matching is always case-insensitive.
- Server is the name of the Client Access Server to access for Exchange Web Services. When omitted, the script will attempt to use Autodiscover.
- Type determines what folder class to process. Options are Mail, Calendar, Contacts, Tasks, Notes or All (Default).
- Switch Impersonation specifies if impersonation will be used for mailbox access, otherwise the current user context will be used.
- DeleteMode specifies how to remove messages. Possible values are HardDelete (permanently deleted), SoftDelete (use dumpster, default) or MoveToDeletedItems (move to Deleted Items folder). Note that the Deleted Items folder will be processed, unless MoveToDeletedItems is used.
- Before can be used to only remove items received before specified date.
- MailboxOnly specifies you only want to process the primary mailbox of specified users. You als need to use this parameter when running against mailboxes on Exchange Server 2007.
- ArchiveOnly specifies you only want to process personal archives of specified users.
- IncludeFolders specifies one or more names of folder(s) to include, e.g. ‘Projects’. You can use wildcards around or at the end to include folders containing or starting with this string, e.g. ‘Projects*’ or ‘*Project*’. To match folders and subfolders, add a trailing \*, e.g. Projects\*. This will include folders named Projects and all subfolders. To match from the top of the structure, prepend using ‘\’. Matching is case-insensitive.
- ExcludeFolders specifies one or more folder(s) to exclude. Usage of wildcards and well-known folders identical to IncludeFolders.
Note that ExcludeFolders criteria overrule IncludeFolders when matching folders.
- NoProgressBar prevents displaying a progress bar as folders and items are being processed.
ReplaceClass specifies that instead of removing the item, its PR_MESSAGE_CLASS class property will be modified to this value. For example, can be used in conjunction with MessageClass to modify any IPM.Note items pending Evault archival back to regular items, using: -MessageClass IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.PendingArchive -ReplaceClass IPM.Note
- Report reports individual items detected as duplicate. Can be used together with WhatIf to perform pre-analysis.
- TrustAll can be used to accept all certificates, e.g. self-signed certificates or when accessing Exchange using endpoint with a different certificate.
For authentication, the following parameters are available:
- Credentials specifies credentials to use for Basic Authentication.
- TenantId specifies the identity of the Tenant (OAuth)
- ClientId specifies the Id of the registered application (OAuth).
- CertificateThumbprint specifies the thumbprint of the certificate from personal store to use for authentication (OAuth).
- CertificateFile specifies the external certificate file (pfx) to use for authentication (OAuth). This certificate needs to contain a private key; the registered application needs to contain the certificate’s public key.
- CertificatePassword optionally specifies the password to use with the certificate file (OAuth).
- Secret specifies the secret to use with the application (OAuth).
For IncludeFolders, ExcludeFolders, you can also use well-known folders using this format: #WellKnownFolderName#, e.g. #Inbox#. Supported are #Calendar#, #Contacts#, #Inbox#, #Notes#, #SentItems#, #Tasks#, #JunkEmail# and #DeletedItems#. The script uses the currently configured Well-Known Folder of the mailbox to be processed.
Here are some examples of using pattern matching in IncludeFolders or ExcludeFolders, based on the following tree structure:
+ TopFolderA + FolderA + SubFolderA + SubFolderB + FolderB + TopFolderB
The following filters will match folders from the above structure:
|Folder*||\TopFolderA\FolderA, \TopFolderA\FolderB, \TopFolderA\FolderA\SubFolderA, \TopFolderA\FolderA\SubFolderB|
|\*FolderA\*||\TopFolderA, \TopFolderA\FolderA, \TopFolderA\FolderB, \TopFolderA\FolderA\SubFolderA, \TopFolderA\FolderA\SubFolderB, \TopFolderB\FolderA|
Suppose you want to remove IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.Shortcut items from the mailbox of user1 and personal archive when enabled, moving the items to the DeletedItems by Impersonation. In such case, you could use the following cmdlet:
Remove-MessageClassItems.ps1 -Identity user1 -MessageClass IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.Shortcut -DeleteMode MoveToDeletedItems -Impersonation –Verbose
Note: Screenshot shows Mailbox parameter, which is per 1.52 renamed to Identity
Note: By default, Remove-MessageClassItems will only search IPF.Note class folders (i.e. containing mail items), so you’ll only see those being processed. If you want all folders scanned (also classless), use the ScanAllFolders switch.
The script also supports Office 365. For example, to remove all items with ‘Enterprise’ in their message class text, received before 1/1/2014, only from the primary mailbox, excluding the folder Personal, using Basic Authentication, you can use:
$Credentials= Get-Credential Remove-MessageClassItems.ps1 -Identity firstname.lastname@example.org -DeleteMode MoveToDeletedItems -MessageClass *EnterpriseVault* -Before 1/1/2014 -MailboxOnly -ExcludeFolder Personal -Credentials $Credentials
In case you want to process multiple mailboxes, you can use a CSV file which needs to contain the Identity field. An example of how the CSV could look:
Identity francis philip
The cmdlet could then be something like:
Import-CSV users.csv1 | Remove-MessageClassItems.ps1 -MessageClass IPM.Note.EnterpriseVault.Shortcut -DeleteMode HardDelete
You’re feedback is welcomed through the comments; if you got scripting suggestions, please use the contact form.
You can download the script from the GitHub here.